History and Geography

Administrative Problems
There is a basic need to communicate the values of the protected areas to the public, involve them in the decision-making and designing the management plan.
Usually there are several responsible organizations, even within one park, and there is a low level of cooperation.

Legal and Illegal Logging

Most of the European protected areas are exposed to questionable logging. In Hungary, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy logging is a common practice.
The Russian forest protection is weak in practice, even though it seems to be well constituted on paper. Some of the protected areas called "zakazniks" allow full economic activity. As a result, a significant amount of the national parks' income is based on logging.
The result of insufficient monitoring is illegal logging. That is known to happen on many European countries, like the Czech Republic, Estonia, Italy, Lithuania and Slovakia.


Usually local inhabitants have the right to hunt even in protected areas
Road Building Roads and other infrastructure (water pipes, electricity, dams, sewer, skiing resorts, etc) divide the forests in small fragments.

Non-native species
The best example of a non-native specie displacing a native one is the story of the North- American Gray squirrel in the UK.


For example the gold mines located in the Komi Republic modify the environment of pristine forests
Uncontrolled Tourism
A controlled, right kind of tourist is not dangerous for protected areas, but the growth of tourism exceeded the ecological carrying capacities of many national parks.

Forest Fire
Fire is a natural process and is important in the natural dynamics in the taiga forests in the north. For many species living in forests subject for periodical burning face problems because of modern fire surveillance.
In Finland and Sweden tests on the opportunities for restoring these natural dynamics seem promising.
On the other hand, in the Mediterranean, they face the problem of increased risk of fires caused by human activity.