The Carpathian Biosphere Reserve in Ukraine represents the whole complex of altitudinal zonality of the Carparthian. The territory is mainly covered by forests (nearly 90%), although there is a wide spectrum of habitats in the area.
A considerable part of these
forests is virgin. More than 25 tree species live there : oak, hornbeam
oak, oak-beech, beech oak forests contain species like durmast oak, stunted
oak phytocoenoses. In general, the vegetation could be described as a
forest-steppe nature. On the warmest side of the mountains the vegetation
is determined by oak, while on the lower hypsometric levels there are
oak-beech and beech-oak forests. In the mountain protected massifs pure
beech forests are widely represented. The highest altitudes are occupied
by natural spruce forests. Above the forest zone, subalpine and alpine
meadows are found, sometimes with fragments of elfin woodland. The upper
forest line lies at the altitude of 1200m in this area.